<情報戦争-Cyberchat>

 「デジタル革命」は、世界の軍事バランスまで変えようとしているようです。以下に紹介する四つは、テロリスト集団、弱小国家でも、ポスト冷戦に残った唯一の超大国アメリカをも脅かしかねないと懸念されている「cyberweapon」である。覚えておくといいかもしれない。

 LOGIC BOMB
 A software program that "detonates" at a specific time, or when certain instructions are executed. It then typically destroys or rewrites data.

 SNIFFER
 An eaves-dropping program that can monitor communications or commercial transactions.

 HERF GUN
 A high-energy radio frequency weapon. It shoots a high-power radio signal at an electronic target and disables it.

 COMPUTER WORM
 A self-replicating program that uses disk space and memory and can eventually shut down computer systems.

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 これらは、9月30日のニューヨーク・タイムズのCybertimesに「ハイテク情報戦争」に使われる可能性のある四つの武器として紹介されていたものです。これらの武器が発動されて標的にされる可能性のあるものとして、この記事は以下を挙げています。

 THE TARGETS
 The potential targets range from financial markets to tanks. But experts debate whether these are imminent threats or worst-case nightmares.

 AIRPLANES
 Destructive software could cause plane crashes by making on-board avionics malfunction. High-energy weapons, in theory, could also cause crashes by disabling computer systems.

 BANKS AND STOCK EXCHANGES
 Sniffer programs can track funds transfers. Logic bombs could cripple the markets and destroy records of transactions. Computer hackers can crack into banking networks and steal money.

 ELECTRIC UTILITIES
 Logic bombs or worms could knock out power grids, causing local or regional black outs.

 TANKS AND ARMS
 Sophisticated computer controls are vulnerable to both destructive software and high-energy weapons. Everything from tanks to surveillance aircraft are potentially at risk.

 TRAINS
 Logic bombs in traffic-control networks could cause crashes by misrouting trains.

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 この記事のurlは「http://www.nytimes.com/library/cyber/week/0930war.html」で見ての通りライブラリーに入っていますから、まだ残っているかも知れません。お読みになりたい方をそちらで。専門家の間ではもう話題になっていますが、一般にはまだ日本では取り上げられていない。昔は、アメリカのような超大国に戦争を仕掛けるには同じような国力、武器、情報体系を持たなければならなかった。「ハイテク情報戦争」では、「ちっぽけなテロ集団」、しいて言えば「個人」でも超大国に挑むことが出来るようになるのが特徴です。「a certain leveling of playing field」といわけです。

 最近の色々な記事を読んでいると、アメリカではこの「コンピューター時代の戦争」に関し徐々に関心が高まっているようです。CIAも特別のセンターを設置したという。(ycaster 96/11/24)

    ☆    ☆    ☆    ☆    ☆

 上の記事を書いてからもう4年。2000年の2月にはアメリカの有名サイトに対する一連の攻撃、日本の官庁のホームページに対する攻撃など、一連のハッカー事件が発生した。攻撃も多様化したようで、2月21日のビジネス・ウィークは、2000年初め現在のネット関連 WEAPON やそれを使う連中に関して、以下のような分類をしている。

Storming the Fortress

THE WEAPONS:

DENIAL OF SERVICE
This is becoming a common networking prank. By hammering a Web site's equipment with too many requests for information, an attacker can effectively clog the system, slowing performance or even crashing the site. This method of overloading computers is sometimes used to cover up an attack.

SCANS
Widespread probes of the Internet to determine types of computers, services, and connections. That way the bad guys can take advantage of weaknesses in a particular make of computer or software program.

SNIFFER
Programs that covertly search individual packets of data as they pass through the Internet, capturing passwords or the entire contents.

SPOOFING
Faking an e-mail address or Web page to trick users into passing along critical information like passwords or credit-card numbers.

TROJAN HORSE
A program that, unknown to the user, contains instructions that exploit a known vulnerability in some software.

BACK DOORS
In case the original entry point has been detected, having a few hidden ways back makes reentry easy--and difficult to detect.

MALICIOUS APPLETS
Tiny programs, sometimes written in the popular Java computer language, that misuse your computer's resources, modify files on the hard disk, send fake e-mail, or steal passwords.

WAR DIALING
Programs that automatically dial thousands of telephone numbers in search of a way in through a modem connection.

LOGIC BOMBS
An instruction in a computer program that triggers a malicious act.

BUFFER OVERFLOW
A technique for crashing or gaining control of a computer by sending too much data to the buffer in a computer's memory.

PASSWORD CRACKERS
Software that can guess passwords.

SOCIAL ENGINEERING
A tactic used to gain access to computer systems by talking unsuspecting company employees out of valuable information such as passwords.

DUMPSTER DIVING
Sifting through a company's garbage to find information to help break into their computers. Sometimes the information is used to make a stab at social engineering more credible.

THE PLAYERS

WHITE-HAT HACKERS
They're the good guys who get turned on by the intellectual challenge of tearing apart computer systems to improve computer security.

BLACK-HAT HACKERS
Joyriders on the Net. They get a kick out of crashing systems, stealing passwords, and generally wreaking as much havoc as possible.

CRACKERS
Hackers for hire who break into computer systems to steal valuable information for their own financial gain.

SCRIPT BUNNIES
Wannabe hackers with little technical savvy who download programs--scripts--that automate the job of breaking into computers.

INSIDERS
Employees, disgruntled or otherwise, working solo or in concert with outsiders to compromise corporate systems.

ycaster 2000/02/16)


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